The sustainable development concept develops as part of the questions related to the relationship between nature and societies. According to the UN, which is largely responsible for the emergence and dissemination of this concept in the world, it is about implementing "an economically efficient, socially equitable and ecologically sustainable development." The temporal dimension is fundamental insofar as it is aimed at not to compromise the relationship of future generations with their needs for natural resources. However, the attempts to implement sustainable development at the international level face the challenge of building a positive integration between economic growth, social equity and environmental protection; and no less important: how to reconcile this development with a policy of reducing the North-South imbalance.
In 2015, this difficulty led countries to agree on the need for ambitious financing, to formulate the 2030 Agenda and to establish 17 sustainable development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2018  highlights the progress in several areas of the 2030 Agenda: the reduction of maternal and infant mortality, the prevention of teenage pregnancy and the reduction of unemployment. However, shortcomings are also pointed out in other dimensions such as the persistence of extreme poverty, marginality and hunger (11% of the world population) and the lack of decent employment opportunities for young people whose unemployment rate triples that of adults. Gender disparities continue: women dedicate three times more hours than men to unpaid domestic tasks, men earn 12.5% more than women and, although female participation in the lower chambers is increasing, the percentage of women deputies in 2018 was only 23% in 45 countries surveyed. Furthermore, 30% of the world population lacks access to drinking water and 60% does not have basic sanitation services (sewage or septic tank). Additionally, 90% of the urban population breathes contaminated air and people killed by this cause reached 4.2 million in 2016.
In terms of Education, the objective set out in the 2030 Agenda is to: "Guarantee equitable and inclusive quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all." The Report indicates that the participation rate in early childhood education and primary reached 70% in 2016, with the lowest rates in Africa and western Asia. According to the evaluations, 58% of children and adolescents do not achieve basic levels of performance in reading and mathematics.
Some of the questions that are posed to education and training are the following:
How to educate about sustainable development and what curricular changes do for sustainable development?
How to integrate sustainable development in teacher education?
What professional devices, practices and dilemmas for the inclusion of all students?
Sustainable development and inclusion: what challenges for interculturality?
What disciplinary and didactic treatment for the problems linked to sustainable development?
 Report on Sustainable Objectives 2018, ONU, 2018. Available in: Download